Clearly the previous iterations of Sabbath have now made Israel aware that this isn’t optional. Its Yahwehs, you must participate in it to be a part of Israel, there is consequence to be experienced if you make Yahwehs Sabbath common or profane.
Yet the requirement has been contextual to the individual. It is a personal thing, albeit something regarding membership within the nation. Now the nation has a participatory element. There are national feasts/holidays to be observed, and they have within them specific days of Sabbath observance.
The next mention is in Lev 16 and talks about atonement for the sins of the whole nation. This becomes the annual observance of the “Day of Atonement”.
Lev 16:31 NASB – “It is to be a sabbath of solemn rest for you, that you may humble your souls; it is a permanent statute.
The next section is with Lev 23 and the outline of the Feasts of Yah are commanded. This now sets a Sabbath as more than just the 7th day, but there are days of rest commanded in addition to weekly Sabbath. They are also “Sabbaths” yet not tied to a specific numbered day of week.
Lev 23:2 NKJV – “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim [to be] holy convocations, these [are] My feasts.
Yet within this passage, the weekly Sabbath itself is mentioned first, and possibly as important as a feast. It adds an interesting piece about “all your dwellings”, as well as tied to this idea of “convocations” in the previous verse. In Ex 12 where the Feasts of Unleavened Bread is directed, the word Sabbath is not used, but convocation, yet the command not to work is given implying this as a Sabbath
Exd 12:16 NKJV – ‘On the first day [there shall be] a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but [that] which everyone must eat–that only may be prepared by you.
Lev 23:3 NKJV – ‘Six days shall work be done, but the seventh day [is] a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You shall do no work [on it]; it [is] the Sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.
Dwellings is meaning where you are at, not just literal house and is connected to convocations because it is also used for people sitting together.
The next mention is the commands of the feasts of Yahweh. The 3 feasts (Unleavened Bread, Trumpets, Tabernacles) are required “moedim” or rehersals of Yahweh that detail his workings. They often involve the first day or last day as an additional Sabbath. In Tabernacles, the feast is a week. It it started on any day other than Shabbat, it would mean 3 days of rest that Feast.
The next mention is for when the Israelites actually dwelling in their promised land. The land itself now comes under the life of Yahweh. The land itself rests.
Lev 25:2 NASB – “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When you come into the land which I shall give you, then the land shall have a Sabbath to the LORD.
Lev 25:3 NASB – ‘Six years you shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard and gather in its crop,
The next concept while not directly a Sabbath, but an extension of the Sabbath is the Year of Jubilee. 7 Sabbath Years there is a release from debt and restoration.
Lev 25:8 NASB – ‘You are also to count off seven Sabbaths of years for yourself, seven times seven years, so that you have the time of the seven Sabbaths of years, namely, forty-nine years.
Lev 25:9 NASB – ‘You shall then sound a ram’s horn abroad on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the day of atonement you shall sound a horn all through your land.
Lev 25:10 NASB – ‘You shall thus consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim a release through the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you, and each of you shall return to his own property, and each of you shall return to his family.
The next significant mention is when a man breaks it, and the congreation/people are to enact the punishment.
Num 15:32 NASB – Now while the sons of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man gathering wood on the Sabbath day.
Num 15:33 NASB – Those who found him gathering wood brought him to Moses and Aaron and to all the congregation;
Num 15:35 NASB – Then the LORD said to Moses, “The man shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones outside the camp.”
Num 15:36 NASB – So all the congregation brought him outside the camp and stoned him to death with stones, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
The next significant instance also involves punishment, from Yahweh. Yahweh sends them into captivity for not keeping Sabbath years.
2Ch 36:20 NASB – Those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon; and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia,
2Ch 36:21 NASB – to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed its Sabbaths. All the days of its desolation it kept Sabbath until seventy years were complete.
2Ch 36:22 NASB – Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia–in order to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah–the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he sent a proclamation throughout his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying,
2Ch 36:23 NASB – “Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever there is among you of all His people, may the LORD his God be with him, and let him go up!'”